Saturday, October 31, 2009

Project TWO-FOLD

25 MAY 1973

MEMORANDUM FOR: Executive Secretary, CIA Management Committee

1. This memorandum sets forth a recommendation for your approval in paragraph 5.

2. For the past several years, this office has been supporting the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD) by spotting, assessing, and recruiting personnel to form an internal security unit whose primary mission is the detection of corruption within the BNDD. Subsequent to the recruitment and training stage, the individuals selected are turned over to the Chief Inspector of BNDD for operational guidance and handling in their various domestic assignments.

3. Recently, this Agency has extended this activity by supporting BNDD in the covert acquisition of individuals who are hired as Staff Agents utilized under nonofficial cover and directed against the principal international drug traffickers. These individuals are true employees of the BNDD and, although all administrative details relative to their employment are handled within the Agency, they are unaware of any Agency involvement.

4. It is felt at this time that a reaffirmation of our support to BNDD in Project TWO-FOLD is necessary and desirable.

5. Therefore, it is recommended that approval be granted for the continuation of Project TWO-FOLD as originally approved by the Director of Central Intelligence on 12 February 1971.

Howard J. Osborn
Director of Security

Priority Requirement for the use of Drug-Induced Hypnosis Interrogation Technique

19 June 1950

TO: CHIEF, INSPECTION AND SECURITY
Attn: Colonel Sheffield Edwards

FROM: Chief, [...]

SUBJECT: Priority Requirement for the use of Drug-Induced Hypnosis Interrogation Technique in [...]

1. [...] has advised us that a large number of [...] are in the process of being repatriated to [...] from the USSR, where they have been interned since their capture by the Red Army in 1945. These [...] will be available within the very near future for intensive interrogation. In view of [...] and the length of time they have been interned, as well as known Soviet indoctrination of other [...] it is believed that without question they have been given the maximum amount of Soviet Communist indoctrination and that at least a portion of them have been recruited as Communist and Soviet espionage agents.

2. [...] has pointed out that this may represent an extremely valuable and unique opportunity whereby tremendously valuable results might be obtained by the use of the interrogation techniques involving drug-induced hypnosis. It is felt that this represents a definite priority and that all possible effort should be undertaken to have appropriate [...] from this group completely and fully interrogated with the use of these techniques. We are in a position to arrange such interrogations in [...] securely and effectively.

Action: It will be appreciated if you will advise me whether appropriate IAS personnel can be made available to proceed to [...] on a TDY basis for the purpose of assisting in conducting such interrogations. Your concurrence in this is strongly recommended and, if you concur, [...] will immediately arrange for the selection of [...] for such interrogation on the basis of their personal history, background, and the aspects of their initial interrogation by CIC in [...]. It would be appreciated also if you will advise us of your decision in this matter as soon as possible.

Friday, October 30, 2009

Recent Activities of the Watergate Special Prosecution Staff

17 December 1973

MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD

1. Early in the evening of 10 December 1973, I received a telephone call from [...] who informed that he, in turn, had received a call from [...] Intelligence Division, Washington Metropolitan Police Department.

2. It seems that [...] had just spent an hour in conversation at his home with a [...] in the Washington Metropolitan Police Department who had reported to him on his interview that afternoon with a Mr. Martin and a Mr. Horowitz, prosecutors of the Watergate Special Prosecution Staff. [...] had been subpoenaed for his appearance and he indicated to [...] that the two prosecutors were principally concerned with two matters:

a. What type of training had the Agency given members of the Washington Metropolitan Police Department? how long were the courses? and how often were they given?

b. What support did the Agency provide to the Washington Metropolitan Police Department during demonstrations occurring in the Washington area in late 1969 and early 1970?

3. [...] said that he had been shown a long list of names and asked if any of them had been involved either with the training given the Washington Metropolitan Police Department or the support to the Washington Metropolitan Police Department during the demonstrations. [...] could remember only three names on the list. They were: [...]

4. The three individuals named by [...] did in fact participate in both the training and support during the demonstrations. They are only three among others of my [...] special support group who were involved in these activities. Of extreme sensitivity is the fact that these same individuals were engaged in other highly sensitive activities which could cause the Agency severe embarrassment if they were surfaced today in the current "Watergate climate."

5. I briefed the Director personally on this development and he indicated that if the training and demonstrations surfaced that he would simply acknowledge that this had occurred but as he had assured members of Congress, we would not engage in this type of activity in the future. He agreed with my suggestion that we have the Legislative Counsel brief Congressman Nedzi and Senator Stennis on this since they have already been briefed on all activities of this nature undertaken by the Agency in the past. I briefed Mr. John Warner, Acting General Counsel, and agreed with him that we would make no effort to brief members of my [...] until and if they are subpoenaed. Mr. Warner or members of his Staff will then caution them to only answer questions asked and not volunteer additional information. I am making a copy of this memorandum available to [...] of the Inspector General's Staff at the suggestion of the Inspector General, who I also briefed on this development.

Howard J. Osborn
Director of Security

Bluebird Team - Medical Summary

Office Memorandum - United States Government

DATE: 24 November 1950

TO: Chief, I & S Staff

FROM: Bluebird Team

SUBJECT: Medical Summary [...] File No.: [...] - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

The drug used in this case was Sodium Amytal intravenously, 8% solution at the rate of 1 cc a minute. The stimulant employed was Benzedrine intravenously at the rate of 1 cc a minute plus 10 mg given orally at the completion of the technique.

The intravenous injection was begun at 1332. At 1342, 9.1 cc had been administered. At 1345 the Subject was sound asleep. It was possible to arouse him but in order to obtain the exact state desired, same stimulant was administered, that is, intravenous Benzedrine. At 1405, he was accessible, but his speech was quite thick. At that time 1 cc more of Benzedrine was given intravenously following which he was in the proper state for the transference. The interrogation and other conversation was continued until 1449 when the Subject was told to go to sleep, which he did. At 1453, he was given 8 cc of the Benzedrine solution, following which he became quite wide awake. At 1615, 1 Benzedrine tablet was given to be taken orally, the dose being 10 mg.

The Subject was thoroughly convinced that the medication was administered solely for the purpose of helping him in regard to the [...] machine technique, that is, for the reduction of his nervousness. He had amnesia as to his conversation under the influence of the medication.

Thursday, October 29, 2009

Project BLUEBIRD Research Studies

10. OPERATIONAL AND/OR SECURITY CLEARANCE

All project personnel and agents will have the appropriate security clearance.

11. COVER

a. Field personnel concerned with this project will function under U.S. Government cover applicable to the Field Mission or Station to which they are assigned.

b. There will be established a research foundation, [...], under the direction of [...] will have an overt function to study Human Ecology, the relation between men and their environment and the relation between the social environment and human illness. The high order of the aims and purposes of this overt research program will be in accord with the professional standards which prevail at this institution and will effectively conceal the actual purpose and degree of Agency participation. The cover purpose of this Foundation will be to carry out the domestic phase of this project in line with the task and objectives set forth herein.

NOTE: The following attachments are pertinent to the cover organization and provide additional background on the formulation and scope of this activity:

a. Overt Protocol for the [...]

b. Diagram of the Organizational Breakdown of the [...]

c. Narrative Description of the Overt and Covert Activities of [...]

c [sic]. Case officer contact with individual agent personnel will be worked out on a case basis depending on the actual circumstances of the developmental operation. Agent personnel directly involved in activities within the cover Foundation will be unwitting.

12. CONTROL AND MOTIVATION

All Staff, Contract and Consultant personnel will be U.S. citizens, fully cleared prior to participation in this project. As U.S. citizens they are subject to espionage laws and regulations. Particular emphasis is being placed on selection of the above mentioned personnel in view of the sensitive nature of the project. Agent personnel processed under this project will be thoroughly and professionally assessed to determine basic motivation and control factors. These factors will be re-inforced through the application of additional psychiatric and psychological techniques, methods and skills including the use of hypnosis in conjunction with drugs where applicable.

13. EQUIPMENT AND OTHER SUPPORT

There will be a definite need within the project for certain scientific laboratory equipment. An estimate of the cost of this material will be set forth in para (16) below. In addition to scientific equipment, office material, including safes, desks, typewriters and stationery will also be required. Special operational equipment including S/W material and other communication equipment for use in specific operations will be requested under individual sub-projects.

14. COORDINATION

This project was originated at Headquarters. In view of the sensitive nature of the proposed objectives and tasks, coordination will be on a strict need to know basis.

15. TIMETABLE

As previously indicated, the Agency has done considerable research and has undertaken various activities in the past that will directly contribute to this project. Maximum utilization will be made of knowledge already gained and assets available through existing programs at Headquarters and in the Field. Considerable groundwork has already been laid in connection with the establishment of [...]. Certain key personnel have already been cleared and steps taken to formally establish the cover [...] upon approval of this project. A progressive plan has been worked out for initiating the activities of the cover [...]. These activities have been broken down into five separate research projects under the direction of the [...]. A brief description of these research projects and an estimated date of commencement follows: (see attachment C for additional details)

1. Study of [...], 1 October 1954

2. Effect of Chemical Agents on Bodily Functions, Mentation and Attitudes, 1 September 1954

3. Other Factors Effecting Behavior, Mentation, and Attitudes, 1 October 1954.

4. Methods of Assessing Behavior, Motivation, Attitude and Adaptive Capacities, immediately upon approval of the project.

5. Consultative Service for Relevant Agency Problems; Special Services, immediately upon approval of the project.

The dates given above are tentative and contingent upon the availability of cleared personnel. In most cases preliminary research will commence immediately upon approval of the project.

16. ESTIMATE COST

COMPENSATION

Director [...] $9,000
Executive Director $10,000
Agency Liaison Officer $10,800
Research Analyst $5,940
Research Psychologist 2x $6,000 = $12,000
Psychiatrist $3,500
Cultural Anthropologist $2,000
Sociologist $2,000
Laboratory Technicians 2 x $2,500 = $5,000
Hypnotic Technician $1,500
Hypnotic Specialist 3 x $1,000 = $3,000
Neurologist $4,000
Research Associate (Sociology) $3,750
Secretary and Clerk Typist 3 x $3,000 = $9,000
Agents (Student Fellowship) 8 x $3,500 = $28,000
Char Force 2 x $1,500 = $3,000

Total Compensation = $112,490

EQUIPMENT

This figure covers general office equipment, including desks, typewriters, files and safes, and stationery supplies; recording equipment; and special scientific equipment.

Total Equipment $20,000

TRAVEL AND PER DIEM

This figure covers domestic and foreign travel and per diem for project personnel.

Total Travel and Per Diem $15,000

CONTINGENCY FUND

This fund will be made available as required to the Director, [...] for operational expenses, including grants to additional students representing potential agents not covered elsewhere in the project; and operational entertainment.

Total Contingency Fund $15,000

RENT, RENOVATION AND UTILITIES

This figure includes the rent, renovation and utilities of office space for project personnel and operational safe house facilities. Office space for project personnel will be rented from the [...]

[...]

regulation which would prevent the departure from the United States of [...] who had received certain professional and/or technical training in this country.

d. In view of the sensitive nature of some of the scientific techniques to be employed in specific operational situations under this project, special coordination will be required. This coordination will include the approval, for specific activity, Deputy Director/Plans and Director, Office Security.

Castro Stalker Worked for the CIA

By Jack Anderson

The mystery man whom the Central Intelligence Agency recruited to assassinate Cuba's Fidel Castro has been laid up in the sick ward of the Los Angeles County jail.

He is handsome, hawk-faced John Roselli, once a dashing figure around Hollywood and Las Vegas, now a gray, 66-year-old inmate with a respiratory ailment.

Confidential FBI files identify him as "a top Mafia figure" who watched over "the concealed interests in Las Vegas casinos of the Chicago underworld."

Roselli has admitted to friends that he was a rum runner during the Roaring Twenties. Operating along the East Coast, he learned how to evade Coast Guard cutters and police patrols.

His name later became linked with the biggest names in the Chicago and Los Angeles underworlds. He also developed contacts in the Cuban underworld before Castro took over the Havana gambling casinos.

He had the right background for a hush-hush mission that the CIA was planning in 1961. As part of the Bay of Pigs invasion, the CIA hoped to knock off Castro and leave Cuba leaderless.

Risks Neck

Roselli was recruited for the job by Robert Maheu, a former FBI agent, who admitted to us that he had handled undercover assignments for the CIA. He refused, however, to discuss the details. This is the same Maheu, incidentally, who is now involved in a legal battle over phantom billionaire Howard Hughes' Nevada operations.

Roselli was so flattered over being asked to perform a secret mission for the U.S. government that he paid all his expenses out of his own pocket and risked his neck to land the assassination teams on the Cuban coast.

In James Bond fashion, he held whispered meetings in Miami Beach hotels with Cubans willing to make an attempt on Castro's life. Once, he called on Chicago racket boss Sam Giancana to line up a contact. The confidential files report that Giancana had "gambling interest and an interest in the shrimp business in Cuba." However, the Chicago gangster took no direct part in the assassination plot.

Roselli made midnight dashes to Cuba with his hired assassins in twin powerboats. Once a Cuban patrol ship turned its guns on his darkened boat, tore a hole in the bottom and sank the boat. Roselli was fished out of the water by the other boat, which escaped into the shadows.

In earlier columns, we reported how the CIA furnished Roselli with deadly poison capsules which he tried through a relative of Castro's chef to plant in the dictator's food. Later, marksmen armed with high-powered Belgian rifles attempted to infiltrate close enough to gun Castro down.

All told, six assassination attempts were made, the last in the spring of 1963. Throughout this period, Roselli worked under the direct supervision of two secret CIA agents. William Harvey and James (Big Jim) O'Connell.

Roselli's Reward

The FBI which got wind of the assassination plot, has tried to pump Roselli for information. But he was sworn to silence by the CIA, and up to this moment, he hasn't broken it.

Meanwhile, the Justice Department, as part of its crackdown on organized crime, tried to nail Roselli. The FBI discovered that his Chicago birth records had been forged, that his name was really Filippo Sacco and that he had come to this country from Italy as a child. He was convicted for failing to register as an alien.

He was also convicted for conspiracy to rig card games at Los Angeles' exclusive, Friar's Club.

Of Roselli's two CIA associates, Harvey has now retired to Indianapolis and O'Connell is still on the CIA payroll. oth admitted to us a friendship with Roselli but refused to discuss their CIA activities. Harvey said he had a "high regard" for Roselli and called the Friar's Club case a "bum rap." Said Harvey: "The Friar's Club indictment is phony. Roselli had no more to do with that than I had."

Roselli's lawyers are now trying to get clemency for their client, citing our stories, about his secret CIA service.

Firearms Fiasco

Under pressure from the firearms lobby, the Treasury Department has failed to enforce a vital section of the 1968 federal firearms act.

The law was passed after the murders of Sen. Robert Kennedy and Dr. Martin Luther King. It authorizes the Treasury Secretary to require full reports of all firearms and ammunition sales.

For the two years that the law has been in force, the Treasury Department has ignored this key provision. The gun industry has complained it would be a bookkeeping nightmare.

The federal government which would have to compile all the sales data, has also been reluctant to spend the $100 million it would cost in computers and staff to maintain the firearms files.

Wednesday, October 28, 2009

6 Attempts to Kill Castro Laid to CIA

By Jack Anderson

Locked in the darkest recesses of the Central Intelligence Agency is the story of six assassination attempts against Cuba's Fidel Castro.

For 10 years, only a few key people have known the terrible secret. They have sworn never to talk. Yet we have learned the details from sources whose credentials are beyond question.

We spoke to John McCone, who headed the CIA at the time of the assassination attempts. He acknowledged the idea had been discussed inside the CIA but insisted it had been "rejected immediately." He vigorously denied that the CIA had ever participated in any plot on Castro's life. Asked whether the attempts could have been made with his knowledge, he replied: "It could not have happened."

We have complete confidence, however, in our sources.

The plot to knock off Castro began as part of the Bay of Pigs operation. The intent was to eliminate the Cuban dictator before the motley invaders landed on the island. Their arrival was expected to touch off a general uprising, which the Communist militia would have had more trouble putting down without the charismatic Castro to lead them.

After the first attempt failed, five more assassination teams were sent to Cuba. The last team reportedly made it to a rooftop within shooting distance of Castro before they were apprehended. This happened around the last of February or first of March, 1963.

Nine months later, President Kennedy was gunned down in Dallas by Lee Harvey Oswald, a fanatic who previously had agitated for Castro in New Orleans and had made a mysterious trip to the Cuban Embassy in Mexico City.

Among those privy to the CIA conspiracy, there is still a nagging suspicion--unsupported by the Warren Commission's findings--that Castro became aware of the U.S. plot upon his life and somehow recruited Oswald to retaliate against President Kennedy.

To set up the Castro assassination, the CIA enlisted Robert Maheu, a former FBI agent with shadowy contacts, who had handled other undercover assignments for the CIA out of his Washington public relations office. He later moved to Las Vegas to head up billionaire Howard Hughes' Nevada operations.

Maheu recruited John Roselli, a ruggedly handsome gambler with contacts in both the American and Cuban underworlds, to arrange the assassination. The dapper, hawk-faced Roselli, formerly married to movie actress June Lang, was a power in the movie industry until his conviction with racketeer Willie Bioff in a million-dollar Hollywood labor shakedown. The CIA assigned two of its most trusted operatives, William Harvey and James (Big Jim) O'Connell, to the hush-hush murder mission. Using phony names, they accompanied Roselli on trips to Miami to line up the assassination teams.

The full story reads like the script of a James Bond movie, complete with secret trysts at glittering Miami Beach hotels and midnight powerboat dashes to secret landing spots on the Cuban coast. Once, Roselli's boat was shot out from under him.

For the first try, the CIA furnished Roselli with special poison capsules to slip into Castro's food. The poison was supposed to take three days to act. By the time Castro died, his system would throw off all traces of the poison, so he would appear to be the victim of a natural if mysterious ailment.

Roselli arranged with a Cuban, related to one of Castro's chiefs, to plant the deadly pellets in the dictator's food. On March 13, 1961, Roselli delivered the capsules to his contact at Miami Beach's glamorous Fontainebleau Hotel.

A couple of weeks later, just about the right time for the plot to have been carried out a report out of Havana said Castro was ill. But he recovered before the Bay of Pigs invasion on April 17, 1961.

Four more attempts were made on Castro's life.

Activity #5: Consultative Services for Relevant Agency Problems, Special Services

1. Effective immediately upon the procurement of a secure headquarters facility, we are prepared to set up a central advisory and scientific consultative service to assist the Agency on all matters relative to [...] and other fields of operational interest. We will function as:

(1) A repository and collecting center for information assembled under Activities #'s I to IV.

(2) A center for conferences and seminars relating to:

a. Exchange of information between our staff and the Agency.

b. The problems arising under activities of [...]

c. Orientation and instruction of Agency personnel.

2. In response to specific operational requirements placed upon us by the Agency, we will be prepared to consult, evaluate and advise on methods for their solution. If required, specific experimental investigative programs for each requirement can be set up, and our staff members will make themselves available for Field investigations.

3. We will prepare scientific papers for the Agency upon specific requests relating to topics of mutual interest.

Tuesday, October 27, 2009

The Panama Deception



The Panama Deception documents the untold story of the December 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama; the events which led to it; the excessive force used; the enormity of the death and destruction; and the devastating aftermath. The Panama Deception uncovers the real reasons for this internationally condemned attack, presenting a view of the invasion which widely differs from that portrayed by the U.S. media and exposes how the U.S. government and the mainstream media suppressed information about this foreign policy disaster. The Panama Deception includes never before seen footage of the invasion and its aftermath, as well as interviews with both invasion proponents like Gen. Maxwell Thurman, Panamanian President Endara and Pentagon spokesperson Pete Williams, and opponents like U.S. Representative Charles Rangel (D-NY.), Panamanian human rights workers Olga Mejia and Isabel Corro and former Panamanian diplomat Humberto Brown. Network news clips and media critics contribute to a staggering analysis of media control and self censorship relevant to any news coverage today, particularly during times of war

Activity #4: Methods of Assessing Behavior, Motivation, Attitude, and Adaptive Capacities

1. To implement this Activity we will evaluate the effectiveness of all psychological testing and interviewing procedures used in the assessment of men and their future performance with special emphasis upon their application to intelligence service personnel. Where possible we will design and develop new procedures to meet our requirements.

2. We will therefore require access to the pertinent file information on both successful and unsuccessful intelligence agents so that we may analyze the factors which have been responsible for their success or failure. We also require access to information, whether in agency files, operational libraries and published documents relating to the total concept of intelligence, treason or counter-intelligence. We will use this material for our operational research and orientation in the subject of espionage and its individuals. We are now engaged in seeking the best qualified, psychologically trained scientists to participate in the research and testing phases of this activity. Their availability to us is presently contingent upon their security clearance.

3. When criteria for selecting good intelligence agents have been drawn up they will be applied to the alien [...] (Activity #1). We will critically review the performance of these and all other agents selected under this program, and utilize the information obtained as a continuing guide the improvement of our techniques.

4. As we perfect our testing and interview techniques and procedures, and define the criteria for selection of personnel, we will compile a handbook for the Agency as the instructions and guide in the total management of intelligence agents.

Johnny Roselli and Attempts to Assassinate Fidel Castro

19 NOV 1970

MEMORANDUM FOR: Director of Central Intelligence

1. This memorandum is for information only.

2. In August 1960, Mr. Richard M. Bissell approached Colonel Sheffield Edwards to determine if the Office of Security had assets that may assist in a sensitive mission requiring gangster-type action. The mission target was Fidel Castro.

3. Because of its extreme sensitivity, only a small group was made privy to the project. The DCI was briefed and gave his approval. Colonel J. C. King, Chief, WH Division, was briefed, but all details were deliberately concealed from any of the JMWAVE officials. Certain TSD and Commo personnel participated in the initial planning stages, but were not witting of the purpose of the mission.

4. Robert A. Maheu was contacted, briefed generally on the project, and requested to ascertain if he could develop an entree into the gangster elements as the first step toward accomplishing the desired goal.

5. Mr. Maheu advised that he had met one Johnny Roselli on several occasions while visiting Las Vegas. He only knew him casually through clients, but was given to understand that he was a high-ranking member of the "syndicate" and controlled all of the ice-making machines on the Strip. Maheu reasoned that, if Roselli was in fact a member of the clan, he undoubtedly had connections leading into the Cuban gambling interests.

6. Maheu was asked to approach Roselli, who knew Maheu as a personal relations executive handling domestic and foreign accounts, and tell him that he had recently been retained by a client who represented several international business firms which were suffering heavy financial losses in Cuba as a result of Castro's action. They were convinced that Castro's removal was the answer to their problem and were willing to pay a price of $150,000 for its successful accomplishment. It was to be made clear to Roselli that the U.S. Government was not, and should not, become aware of this operation.

7. The pitch was made to Roselli on 14 September 1960 at the Hilton Plaza Hotel, New York City. His initial reaction was to avoid getting involved but, through Maheu's persuasion, he agreed to introduce him to a friend, Sam Gold, who knew the "Cuban crowd." Roselli made it clear he did not want any money for his part and believed Sam would feel the same way. Neither of these individuals was ever paid out of Agency funds.

8. During the week of 25 September, Maheu was introduced to Sam who was staying at the Fontainebleau Hotel, Miami Beach. It was several weeks after his meeting with Sam and Joe, who was identified to him as a courier operating between Havana and Miami, that he saw photographs of both of these individuals in the Sunday supplemental "Parade." They were identified as Momo Salvatore Giancana and Santos Trafficante, respectively. Both were on the list of the Attorney General's ten most-wanted men. The former was described as the Chicago chieftain of the Cosa Nostra and successor to Al Capone, and the latter, the Cosa Nostra boss of Cuban operations. Maheu called this office immediately upon ascertaining this information.

9. In discussing the possible methods of accomplishing this mission, Sam suggested that they not resort to firearms but, if he could be furnished some type of potent pill, that could be placed in Castro's food or drink, it would be a much more effective operation. Sam indicated that he had a prospective nominee in the person of Juan Orta, a Cuban official who had been receiving kickback payments from the gambling interests, who still had access to Castro, and was in a financial bind.

10. TSD was requested to produce six pills of high lethal content.

11. Joe delivered the pills to Orta. After several weeks of reported attempts, Orta apparently got cold feet and asked out of the assignment. He suggested another candidate who made several attempts without success.

12. Joe then indicated that Dr. Anthony Verona, one of the principal officers in the Cuban Exile Junta, had become disaffected with the apparent ineffectual progress of the Junta and was willing to handle the mission through his own resources.

13. He asked, as a prerequisite to the deal, that he be given $10,000 for organizational expenses and requested $1,000 worth of communications equipment.

14. Dr. Verona's potential was never fully exploited, as the project was canceled shortly after the Bay of Pigs episode. Verona was advised that the offer was withdrawn, and the pills were retrieved.

15. Of significant interest was an incident which involved a request levied by Sam upon Maheu.

At the height of the project negotiations, Sam expressed concern about his girlfriend, Phyllis McGuire, who he learned was getting much attention from Dan Rowan while both were booked at a Las Vegas night club. Sam asked Maheu to put a bug in Rowan's room to determine the extent of his intimacy with Miss McGuire. The technician involved in the assignment was discovered in the process, arrested, and taken to the Sheriff's office for questioning. He called Maheu and informed him that he had been detained by the police. This call was made in the presence of the Sheriff's personnel.

Subsequently, the Department of Justice announced its intention to prosecute Maheu along with the technician. On 7 February 1962, the Director of Security briefed the Attorney General, Robert Kennedy, on the circumstances leading up to Maheu's involvement in the wiretap. At our request, prosecution was dropped.

16. In May 1962, Mr. William Harvey took over as Case Officer, and it is not known by this Office whether Roselli was used operationally from that point on.

17. It was subsequently learned from the FBI that Roselli had been convicted on six counts involving illegal entry into the United States. Our records do not reflect the date of conviction, but it is believed to have been sometime during November 1967.

18. On 2 December 1968, Roselli, along with four other individuals, was convicted of conspiracy to cheat members of the Friars Club of $400,000 in a rigged gin rummy game.

19. Mr. Harvey reported to the Office of Security of his contacts with Roselli during November and December 1967 and January 1968. It was his belief that Johnny would not seek out the Agency for assistance int he deportation proceedings unless he actually faced deportation. Roselli expressed confidence that he would win an appeal.

20. On 17 November 1970, Maheu called James O'Connell, Roselli's first Case Officer, to advise that Maheu's attorney, Ed Morgan, had received a call from a Thomas Waddin, Roselli's lawyer, who stated that all avenues of appeal had been exhausted, and his client now faces deportation. Waddin indicated that, if someone did not intercede on Roselli's behalf, he would make a complete expose of his activities with the Agency.

21. On 18 November 1970, you were briefed on the latest development in this case, and it was decided that the Agency would not in any way assist Roselli. Maheu was so advised of the Agency's position, and he was in complete agreement with our stand. He further advised that he was not concerned about any publicity as it affected him personally should Roselli decide to tell all. He stated he would advise us promptly of any developments that he may become aware of in this matter.

Howard J. Osborn
Director of Security

Monday, October 26, 2009

Activity #3: Other Factors Affecting Behavior, Mentation, Attitude, etc.

1. This activity is primarily concerned with the problems of how a man can be made to think, "feel" and behave according to the wishes of other men, and, conversely, how a man can avoid being influenced in this manner. The many known processes by which this may be effected can be divided arbitrarily into two categories: (A) the cultural and social processes (e.g., customs, education, military training, parental training in childhood) which operate on men in groups as well as singly, and (B) the "special procedures" (e.g., psychotherapy, "salesmanship," deprivations, coercion, torture and hypnosis) which are directed at individuals. Both types of process are pertinent to intelligence operations, but the "social and cultural" processes are more relevant to indoctrination and motivation, while the "special procedures" are more relevant to subversion, seduction and interrogation.

2. The primary mental processes which take place in response to all of these methods of changing human behavior are probably the same. We plan to assemble, collate and review all the pertinent information relevant to this subject. This will require a broad consideration of many fields of human activity on a long term and continuing basis. As an initial effort we intend to utilize [...] chief consultant in designing this project. As basic information is assimilated by our staff, we shall design methods and techniques of indoctrination applicable to special intelligence problems.

3. Special Procedures of immediate concern for intelligence operations will be reviewed and investigated. For this purpose we need access to all Agency information relating to methods of subversion, intimidation and interrogation employed by intelligence services, including threats, coercion, imprisonment, isolation, deprivation, humiliation, torture, "brain washing," "black psychiatry," hypnosis and combinations of these with or without chemical agents. We will assemble, collate, analyze and assimilate this information and will then undertake experimental investigations designed to develop new techniques of offensive/defensive intelligence use.

4. The Field Demonstration of hypnotic effects now being implemented is an example of an experimental investigation of a "special procedure." Its design and purpose has been set forth in a specific paper. We will actively participate in all phases of this demonstration. It is designed to provide specific answers to the following questions in the light of our present knowledge and techniques of hypnosis:

(1) Can the [...] be hypnotized?

(2) What percentage of [...] are susceptible to hypnosis?

(3) How complete is post-hypnotic amnesia and its degree of permanency?

(4) What is the effectiveness of post-hypnotic suggestion and its degree of permanency?

(5) Can an individual be made to perform acts contrary to his conscious will?

(6) Can hypnotic influence be detected?

(7) What is the effectiveness of chemical agents in hypnotic procedures?

We will critically examine all data, findings and results of this Field Demonstration in order to assess the present effectiveness and deficiency of hypnotic procedures as an offensive and/or defensive intelligence weapon.

John Roselli

15 FEB 1972

MEMORANDUM FOR: Executive Director-Comptroller

1. This memorandum is for your information only.

2. Reference is made to our recent conversation regarding the Agency's participation in political assassinations. Attached hereto is a memorandum dated 19 November 1970 which was furnished to Mr. Helms setting forth the circumstances of the Subject's activities on behalf of the Agency. Initially Roselli was unwitting of Government interest, but as time went on, he suspected that the U.S. Government was involved and specifically the CIA.

3. Roselli is presently serving a prison sentence for conspiracy in a Federal penitentiary in Seattle, Washington and awaits deportation upon completion of his current sentence.

4. This Agency was aware that Roselli intended to expose his participation in the plot should we not intervene on his behalf. The DCI decided to ignore his threats and take a calculated risk as to the consequences that may occur with the disclosure of his story. This was subsequently done by Roselli or someone on his behalf furnishing Jack Anderson details of the incident. Attached hereto are two of Anderson's articles dealing with Roselli. Anderson is also Editor of the Washington Bureau of the Washington Post, Sunday supplemental "Parade."

5. Individuals who were aware of this project were: Messrs. Dulles, Bissell, Colonel J. C. King, Colonel Sheffield Edwards, William Harvey, and James P. O'Connell. Also included were Robert A. Maheu and his attorneys Edward P. Morgan and Edward Bennett Williams.

6. On 26 February 1971 arrangements were made with Immigration and Naturalization Service Commissioner Raymond Farrell to flag any action that may be taken by his organization regarding deportation proceedings against Roselli. On 26 January 1972 James F. Green, Associate Commissioner for I&NS, advised that they were deferring any deportation action for another year and would again call it to our attention upon expiration of the deferral.

Howard J. Osborn
Director of Security

Sunday, October 25, 2009

Activity #2: Effects of Chemical Agents on Bodily Functions, Mentation, Attitude, Etc.

1. Our laboratory at the [...] is already set up for psychological, neurological and pharmacological studies on humans. Such studies are being carried on at this time using patients as subjects. All patients referred to are unwitting of real interest on our part. Such patient-subjects will be available for these studies made by the [...] under Activity #2 [...] which will not involve harm to the subjects. A staff of neurologists, neurosurgeons, psychiatrists, and psychologists is available and ready to be assigned to these investigations as soon as security clearance is granted.

2. Because studies of the effects of drugs and brain damage, etc., in humans have been limited by lack of understanding of the highest integrative functions of the brain as well as by lack of definitive methods of testing these functions, the study of the mechanisms involved in thought, emotion, behavior conditioning and memory will be the overt aspect of this activity as well as an integral part of the covert study. In developing the methods for use in this study we intend to draw upon all the open resources of neurology and psychology to which we have wide access. We are already engaged in canvassing major centers of research for young scientists of the highest caliber who can be assigned to the task of developing new methods of studying brain function.

3. We also require access to all of the accumulated information of the Agency in this field. We wish to begin to review the ARTICHOKE program as soon as possible.

4. We are now setting up a battery of the best of the known testing procedures for these higher brain functions and have assigned members of our staff to begin the investigation of persons with normal brains, persons with psychological disorders and various forms of brain damage, and persons under the influence of openly available drugs affecting brain function.

5. Potentially useful secret drugs (and various brain damaging procedures) will be similarly tested in order to ascertain their fundamental effect upon brain function and upon the subject's mood, thought, behavior conditioning, memory and speech mechanisms. As these drugs are investigated, a concurrent search for antidotes or counter measures will be conducted. Where any of these studies involve potential harm to the subject, we expect the Agency to make available suitable subjects and a proper place for the performance of necessary experiments.

6. When drugs, after initial study appear to have useful potentialities for offensive and/or defensive intelligence operations, we shall test them by laboratory experiments designed to reproduce the actual operational situations in which they will be used. In designing and executing these experiments we expect to have the advice and assistance of qualified Agency personnel. We will also help design and participate in Field trials of these drugs.

7. As new information is accumulated about the fundamental notion of drugs upon the brain, we hope to be able to make valuable suggestions regarding the development of new drugs and new uses for presently known drugs applicable to the offensive and defensive aspects of intelligence operations.

Identification of Activities with Embarrassment Potential for the Agency

15 May 1973

MEMORANDUM FOR: Mr. Howard Osborn, Director of Security

1. In responding on 7 May by memorandum to the DDO's request for the identification of any incident which might conceivably have an embarrassment potential for the Agency, I cited the equipment test which is mentioned in the attached memo. The test in question was related to the development of [...] and in the course of running these tests, our technicians were in and out of some four hotels in Miami, with radio equipment. This was shortly before the political conventions, and at least one of the hotels was within a block of the convention hall.

2. Although this completely innocent--although subject to misconstrual--activity may already have been drawn to your attention by your own staff, it has occurred to us that we should ensure you are aware of it, given the involvement of a Security officer, [...].

Chief, Division D

Att:
M/R dated 7 May 73 by [...]
subj: [...] Equipment
Test, Miami, Fla., Aug 71

SECRET

Saturday, October 24, 2009

Proposed Plan for Project ARTICHOKE

Activity #1

Study of Alien [...]

1. As soon as possible we shall begin to assemble, review and assimilate the available information relating to the culture and social structure of the [...] people to provide us with the necessary background and knowledge for dealing with the alien [...] with whom we shall work. We shall try to identify those social psychological forces and cultural patterns which are being utilized by the [...] Communists and which represent their strength. We shall also try to identify those forces which are being combatted by the [...] Communists and which represent their potential weakness.

In order to do this we need access to all relevant information on those subjects possessed by the Agency including the services of knowledgeable Agency specialists. We also intend to draw upon other sources of information such as cultural anthropologists, sociological and anthropological study groups, (e.g. the [...] and the [...] at [...] and persons having special knowledge of the [...] people by virtue of birth, residence or experience. We have access to and shall exploit scientists interested in these fields, some of whom have worked in our Department in the past. We shall use them as consultants or full time participants as required. We shall expand our contacts into every field which represents a potential of information pertinent to our needs.

2. As this information is assimilated by our staff, it will be used as a basis for a general understanding of the attitudes, behavior, patterns, customs, values and motivations common to the [...] people and therefore also common to the group of [...] aliens whom we shall study individually. This general study of [...] culture and social structure will be a continuing activity of the [...] but its primary purpose will be the psychological assessment of individual [...] aliens.

3. In order to effect this activity, the [...] will undertake an overt scientific study of the "ecological aspects of disease" in a group of "displaced [...] -- a group which is considered to be "under stress" because of their present situation and therefore represents a legitimate group for open study by scientists normally interested in the relation between life situation and disease. This projected study of alien [...] would be considered a normal research activity on our part because there is presently underway a study of a group of [...] immigrants. We will submit a Bill of Particulars to the Agency giving the Requirements for selecting such individuals when we wish to study. We will require help in locating these [...] aliens and will rely on the services of the [...] in procuring desirable candidates. As these candidates become available, and as a part of the interviewing procedures, they will be asked to cooperate in an assessment of their "mental and physical health" and the effect which their experiences have had upon them. This will involve a number of intensive psychiatric interviews and the application of psychological and physical tests.

4. From this survey we hope to identify some agent candidates of high potential. These persons will be given an opportunity "to participate in further activities of the [...]." In order to enable them to do so, some of them will be given short "fellowships" providing a better income than that which the subjects were receiving; they will be asked to perform duties consistent with their abilities and training, and will be treated with dignity, respect and kindly understanding. At the same time, they will be asked to participate in further intensive interviews and psychological tests. They will also be exposed to testing and "stress producing" situations both in the laboratory and in daily life. The effect of this will be to uncover their personality patterns, past conditioning and present motivations and provide us with an indication of their probable future performance in various situations. Through this intensive testing we will develop a thorough knowledge of our Subjects and hope to find some persons, who by virtue of their background and conditioning have the personality and character of good high-level long range agents (see Activity #4), and who also can be expected to find the philosophy and practices of the [...] Communists strongly opposed to some of their basic drives and motivations. We will further extend the period of "fellowship" to such subjects and will utilize the methods and information developed under activity #3 (q.v.) to play upon the known psychological forces at work within these people in order to make them receptive to recruitment by our intelligence service.

5. The recruitment of these individuals will be carried out by Agency personnel not associated with the [...] but the approach to these Subjects and their subsequent management as intelligence agents will be guided by our knowledge of each agent's personality and character structure with full recognition of his areas of susceptibility, strengths and weaknesses. We, therefore, expect that selected Case Officers, who will be assigned to the recruitment, development, and management of agents processed through this program, will participate in the [...] and receive instruction in these methods pertinent to their assigned operational duties.

6. These intelligence agents, once recruited, will be given the advantage of all of our technical knowledge and methods which will assist them to withstand the "interrogation," "brainwashing" and counter espionage activities to which they will be exposed once they return to Communist [...] (See Activities #2 and #3).

7. Contingent upon the availability of a cleared staff and a secure and adequate facility, we are prepared to initiate the interview and assessment of alien [...] candidates and the selection of those for our "Fellowships." The initial survey of interviews and testing will occupy only a few days of each candidate's time. This survey program will be a continuing activity of our [...]. As satisfactory candidates are uncovered, they will be offered initial "Fellowships" of 3 to 6 months' duration; extensions will be for 3 to 6 month intervals. Candidates who have not all requirements should be ready for recruitment as intelligence agents in approximately 9 months to 1 year after initial contact with the [...].

Audio Countermeasures Support to the United States Secret Service

On 25 July 1968, and at the specific request of the United States Secret Service, this Office provided two audio countermeasures technicians to the United States Secret Service in connection with the Democratic National Convention held in Chicago, Illinois. This was not an official detail although both men were provided with temporary credentials identifying them as being affiliated with the United States Secret Service.

On 15 August 1968, we detailed the same two men to the United States Secret Service to cover the Republican National Convention in Miami, Florida. On both occasions, the team members were debriefed upon their return and it is clear that their activities were confined exclusively to sweeping the candidates and potential candidates quarters.

Friday, October 23, 2009

Project ARTICHOKE Memo to Team

IN MR 1469
08 MAR 54
TF 080709
TR 080801
NR 0942

CONVEY OUR SINCEREST CONGRATULATIONS TO ARTICHOKE TEAM

IN OUR OPINION WORK ON THIS OP ALONE MORE THAN JUSTIFIES

RESEARCH TO DATE IN ARTICHOKE FIELD. FEEL SURE IMPORTANCE

THIS DEBRIEFING WILL BE MOST FAVORABLY RECEIVED WASH.

HAVE FORWARDED REFS TO [...] FOR TRANSMITTAL WASH.

General Support Provided by the CIA

A. SRPOINTER

Since 1953, this office has operated a mail intercept program of incoming and outgoing Russian mail and, at various times, other selective mail at Kennedy Airport in New York City. This operation included not only the photographing of envelopes but also surreptitious opening and photographing of selected items of mail. The bulk of the take involved matters of internal security interest which was disseminated to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This program is now in a dormant state pending a decision as to whether the operation will be continued or abolished.

B. AELADLE

For several years the Office of Security has provided support to Anatole Golitsyn, a Russian defector of interest to the CI Staff.

C. REDFACE I

In July 1970, this office made a surreptitious entry of an office in Silver Spring, Maryland, occupied by a former defector working under contract for the Agency. This involved bypassing a contact and sonic alarm system, entering a vault, and entering a safe within the vault. The purpose of the operation was to determine whether the individual had any unauthorized classified information in his possession.

D. BUREAU OF NARCOTICS AND DANGEROUS DRUGS

In January 1971, the Director approved a request from the Director, Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, to provide covert recruitment and security clearance support to BNDD. This has been accomplished through the medium of a proprietary of the Office of Security known as [...] and operating as [...]. Support includes covert recruitment, investigation, polygraph, medical clearance, and training. It has been divided into three phases: (1) A CI operation to place individuals in BNDD field offices to monitor any illegal activities of other BNDD employees; (2) [...] and (3) Recruitment of an individual used as an Agent by BNDD but actually employed by BNDD, although this fact is known only to the Director and Chief Inspector, BNDD. In this case, arrangements were made for all pay and other employee benefits to come from CIA on a reimbursable basis.

E. [redacted]

F. MERRIMAC


From February 1967 to November 1971, [...] an Office of Security proprietary, recruited and handled several Agents for the purpose of covertly monitoring dissident groups in the Washington area considered to be potential threats to Agency personnel and installations. One of these Agents so successfully penetrated one dissident group that she was turned over to the FBI for handling. In addition, during this period, the Office of Security field offices were tasked with collecting available intelligence on dissident groups. All such information was included in a periodic report distributed to appropriate parts of the Agency and to certain outside Government agencies.

Thursday, October 22, 2009

Project ARTICHOKE - Draft of a New Technique

DRAFT

In cooperation with [...] desires to test a new ARTICHOKE technique. The technique does not require the high security considerations utilized by ARTICHOKE team on its last visit in that the application of the technique to the subject takes place under perfectly normal circumstances without the subject being aware of the application of the technique. There are no after effects. It is desired that a minimum of 10 subjects be found for testing purposes. The subjects should be persons who are suspected of having more information than they have divulged to date. They should have a motivation for deception for withholding of information. They should be persons who have been previously thoroughly interrogated by case officers and those case officers should be available to conduct the interrogation during the application of the technique and in the position to determine whether the subject reveals information hitherto undisclosed as a result of this technique. Team members will not be present during the course of the interrogation but will observe and monitor the interrogation to determine reactions of the subject, psychological behavior, medical reactions and other aspects of this type of interrogation. Suggested types of subjects might be certain [...] in the [...] scientific personnel recently return from [...] and agents or indigenous personnel utilized by the operations in the field.

The knowledge of this technique should be restricted only to senior officials in a position to produce subjects described above. In addition, knowledge of team activities should be restricted to the minimum number of persons necessary.

(...) will be in charge of the team and act as liaison point with station personnel. Support in the form of facilities and other assistance will be required of [...] and [...] (USE PSEUDO). It is desired that subjects be selected in order that the team arrival on approximately 16 August will permit immediate processing of the subjects selected. [...] will arrive in a few days in advance of the team to confirm arrangements and prepare the schedules of interrogations and the conditions under which those interrogations will be carried out.

CIA Providing Police Support

A. During 1969, 1970, and 1971, on several occasions, the Intelligence Division of the Metropolitan Police Department was provided a communications system to monitor major anti-Vietnam war demonstrations in the Washington area. This system consisted of a radio receiver and an Agent at the Intelligence Division Headquarters and several automobiles from the Washington Field Office equipped with radio receivers and transmitters and manned by two WFO Agents, as well as a representative of the Intelligence Division, Metropolitan Police Department. The benefit to the Agency was that the communications over this system were monitored at the Headquarters Building to provide instant notice of possible actions by the dissidents against Agency installations.

B. During the period from 1968 to 1973, several items of positive audio equipment consisting primarily of clandestine transmitters and touch-tone dial recorders were loaned to the Metropolitan Police Department, Fairfax County, Virginia, Police Department, Montgomery County, Maryland, Police Department, New York City Police Department, and the San Francisco, California, Police Department.

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

CIA Surveillance in the United States

A. [...]

During the periods of 1-20 February, 12 April-7 May, and 9-20 August 1971, a surveillance was conducted of [...], a former staff employee, and [...] a Cuban national with whom [...] become professionally and emotionally involved. Surveillance was predicated upon information that [...] had been seeking from employees information in Information Processing Division files, and that employees were visiting a photographic studio operated by [...] in Fairfax City, Virginia. In addition to physical surveillance, one surreptitious entry of the photographic studio was made, and an attempt to enter the apartment of [...] was aborted because of a door lock problem.

B. [...]

Pursuant to a request from the CI Staff, approved by the DCI, surveillances were conducted of [...] and her associates at various times from May to September 1971. [...] had long been a source of the WH Division and had given information regarding a plot to assassinate or kidnap Vice President Agnew and the DCI. Surveillances included coverage of the activities of Miss King during two visits to the United States, technical coverage of debriefings of her by WH Division representatives in New York City, and surveillance, including mail coverage, of several American citizens alleged to be part of the plot. Although most of the surveillance occurred in New York City, surveillance of one of the individuals included extensive coverage of a commune in Detroit.

C. CELOTEX I

At the direction of the DCI, a surveillance was conducted of Michael Getler of the Washington Post during the periods of 6-9 October, 27 October-10 December 1971 and on 3 January 1972. In addition to physical surveillance, an observation post was maintained int he Statler Hilton Hotel where observation could be maintained of the building housing his office. The surveillance was designed to determine Getler's sources of classified information of interest to the Agency which had appeared in a number of his columns.

D. CELOTEX II

At the direction of the DCI, surveillance was conducted of Jack Anderson and at various times his "leg men," Brit Hume, Leslie Whitten, and Joseph Spear, from 15 February to 12 April 1972. In addition to the physical surveillance, an observation post was maintained in the Statler Hilton Hotel directly opposite Anderson's office. The purpose of this surveillance was to attempt to determine Anderson's sources for highly classified Agency information appearing in his syndicated columns.

E. BUTANE

At the direction of the DCI, a surveillance was conducted on Victor L. Marchetti from 23 March to 20 April 1972. The purpose of this surveillance was to determine his activities and contacts both with Agency employees and other individuals in regard to his proposed book and published magazine articles exposing Agency operations.

The CIA Experiments with a Marijuana-Based Solution

Note: on [...] and the writer on January 30 and 31. To be associated with the memorandum proposed by him on the same subject.

The material, a liquid acetate preparation of Cannabis Indicia (marijuana or hashish), has been known as TD (Truth Drug). It is prepared by [...] chemists only, and is an oil which has no taste, odor or color. The preparation is a very involved process known only to a few persons. There is no reason to believe that any other nation or group is familiar with the preparation and uses of the drug. The drug is also almost impossible to analyze, and for this reason there would be little danger of compromise if it were found among the effects of one of our men. If queried as to the composition of the liquid the agent might well say he would like to know himself so that he might be able to have it made up himself more sharply than by his doctor's prescription.

Tools

At present the oil is put up by the [...] in ampules of 3cc. Inasmuch as a maximum dose is .03cc the ampules are too large for our use. It will be suggested to the [...] that for our use the ampules be of .5cc capacity, or even .25cc. The ampules may be passed off as insulin, some form of allergy antibody, or the agent may feign ignorance and say he believes they are for a vitamin deficiency. The searchers may assume, of course, that the agent is a drug addict. When exposed to air the oil begins to deteriorate and turns yellow-orange slowly. However it will remain effective for some weeks and in one case in a cigarette it was effective to some extent after 6 months. An ampule can be resolved with a piece of rubber, this will not halt deterioration.

kit similar to those used by diabetes patients [...] will to transport the items without exciting suspicion. [...] usual size. The hypo body however should be of only .25cc explicitly and graduated by .01cc. This will have to be a special order because as a general rule hypo bodies are made up in bigger sizes. The kit should contain some grain alcohol and cotton for cleaning the hypo and needle. If not altered promptly the parts will become gummed by the oil as it hardens and evaporates.

PRIOR TO USE

TD is a "Sunday Punch" and should not be used unless the Agent has given thought to all possibilities and feels certain the use of the drug is necessary. It must not be used indiscriminately and without the proper build-up. Its effects are to some extent similar to liquor and the subject who is suspicious and strong minded may not reveal the information you desire. Especially is this true if he feels that your contact with him is for the one purpose of getting information from him. Before the administration the Agent must establish some feeling of mutuality. The subject should be made to feel secure and relaxed. If possible no reference to the business of actual interest should be made until the drug has been applied and taken effect. For the foregoing reasons it may be seen that that the best preliminary move is to get the Subject to take a few drinks of liquor.

As examples of the foregoing, the story was told of a visit to a Prisoner of War Camp in Virginia where only top-notch German military personnel were kept for interrogations. One German submarine commander, who was considered outstanding in his field, had been the sole survivor of his submarine's sinking and it was thought he had valuable information concerning: (1) the depth to which the submarines could go with safety, and (2) the morale of German submarine crews. Both of these items were of extreme interest to our Navy at the time. Many attempts had been made to obtain this information from the commander, however, he was extremely wary. At the time of the visit the commander was invited over the officers' club for a few social drinks, which was more or less customary. After a few drinks and some conversation, it could be seen that while he would talk freely on almost all matters, he was well aware of the fact that an attempt might be made to obtain information from him. The opportunity was found to give him a cigarette which had been loaded and after approximately half an hour had passed from the first administration, one of the company, in a round-about and innocent manner, lead up to the question of maximum depth. The commander, although at this time definitely under the effects of the drug, was still wary and indicated he would not give information on this point. Some time later after two more cigarettes had been consumed, the talk was lead around to morale and he freely conversed about the general lowering of German submarine personnel morale. However, no information was ever obtained concerning maximum depth.

Another case of that of a well-known dope peddler and racketeer in New York City who was well-known to the operator from his days of law enforcement work. The dope peddler was telephoned and asked to come to see the operator who described himself as being connected with secret government work and who was in a position to give the dope peddler an opportunity to help his country in the War. Despite the character of the peddler, he evidently harbored some feelings of patriotism and presented himself, when it was explained that it was thought his connections in Sicily could be used for espionage purposes. Conversation along this line was carried on for some time and no reference was made to any illegal activities of the dope peddler. Although the dope peddler did not drink liquor, he was persuaded to take just one liqueur to keep the operator "company." Also, during the time, three cigarettes had been given to him at different times. The effect was quite rapid and in about 20 minutes after the third cigarette, the peddler told freely of the many illegal activities in which he had been and was then engaged concerning the smuggling of narcotics. He also named many of his associates and officials who were also involved in this activity, although he was well aware that the person to whom he was talking was, and might be in the future, connected with law enforcement activity.

A little later the peddler complained of feeling very light-headed, as though he had had too much liquor. He discarded this as an explanation, however, because he had had only one drink. He did state that he had been having a little trouble with his digestion and he had not eaten for approximately 24 hours. The operator to cover up this situation convinced him that the one liqueur on an empty stomach and his fasting had made him sick and susceptible to the alcoholic fumes. He accepted this explanation.

Another case was one which illustrated the rule that a common basis must first be established and that suspicion must be allayed. This case involved the questioning of approximately 30 army officers in the space of one day. All of the officers were suspected of being Communists and the interview here being held to try to establish the suspicion. It should be noted that because of the speed with which the interrogations were carried out, no mutuality of feeling could be first established, and also because most of the men were in fact Communists and were suspicious, their fears concerning the questioning were not quieted. Nevertheless, the drug was administered in cigarettes and five of the thirty, even under the adverse conditions, gave full information concerning their Communist affiliations.

Administration

Administration of the drug in cigarettes is the easiest method. However, it is difficult to gauge the amount of drug taken by the subject because of the different habits of smoking of various persons. Some people smoke a cigarette down to a small stub without withdrawing it from their mouths very often, whereas others take only a few puffs and in the interim either hold the cigarette in their hands or place it on an ash tray. To load a cigarette, the needle should be thrust in the center along with axis until it is approximately one inch from the opposite end. The needle should then be slowly withdrawn, the drug being deposited while this is taking place. The operator must be careful not to deposit the drug too near the paper wrapping or in too great concentration at one point, as it may reach the paper and stain it. The operator may choose to place either .03 cc in one cigarette or .01 cc in each of three cigarettes to get maximum dosage.

Perhaps the surest way of application is in food, such as candy, hors d'oeuvres, and the like. Here it is assumed that all of the dose will be consumed and there is the further advantage that some check may be made of the amount consumed. For instance, .01 cc could be placed in each of three chocolates which could be given the subject at different times, so as to stretch out the operation. This may be valuable on occasions because it may be that the required effect will be obtained from .01cc and that the person might be overcome with .03 cc and thereby frustrating the attempt. The hypodermic may be carried wrapped up in a pocket to a place where food will be served and the subject will be present, or it may be used in the home. Preparation of the particular food to be used may be made well in advance.

The administration of the drug in liquor is the most satisfactory, inasmuch as the subject in rationalizing his physical feeling will ascribe his feeling of light-headedness to the liquor. The difficulty is, however, that the oil is not soluble in liquor and in fact is only sparingly soluble in straight grain alcohol. When drops are placed in liquor it will be found that they will remain as small droplets and will settle to the bottom of the container. An attempt is being made to develop a tincture which can be used directly in liquor or other liquids.

The operator can look for a reaction from cigarette administration in approximately 15 minutes. In a food administration the effect may appear anywhere from 15 to 45 minutes. These are not always dependable rules, however. The time of reaction will differ with each person, and depends upon the physical condition of the subject, the amount of food or liquor he has already consumed, the length of time since his last meal, etc. In general, it may be said that his time of reaction will keep the same [...] as the time of reaction to alcoholic stimulants under the same conditions.

The operator must not become impatient because of the danger of giving too much to the subject. While the drug will not cause harmful effects or injure the subject, it will probably cause him to lose consciousness in the same manner as one who is completely drunk, and no further questioning will be possible. It is because of this factor that it is advisable to administer the drug in doses of .01 cc over a period of time which will permit observations of results.

The oil is extremely [...] and for this reason must be ejected slowly from the hypodermic. If it is attempted to force the liquid out rapidly, the result may be to force the needle off the hypodermic into the article in which the oil is being injected. Because of this characteristic of the oil, the hypodermic cannot be filled by dipping the needle into the liquid. The needle must be taken off the hypodermic barrel and the liquid drawn in through a large aperture in the hypodermic body. The liquid exhibits less viscosity at higher temperatures.

It has been found that the amount of drink or food consumed by the subject during the time the drug is administered has no effect on the results produced by the drug as such. It may be that the subject becomes nauseated, however, this will only result from too much food or drink and not from the drug.

One administration of from .01 cc to .03 cc will as a rule last in effect from one-half to one hour. It may take as much as two or three hours in extreme cases to administer the drug and reduce the subject to a point where he talks freely. Because of this, it is essential that no operation of this kind be carried on where it is certain that there will be no interruptions for a period of three or four hours. While the subject is under the influence, he will exhibit all the evidence of being very drunk and for this reason his appearance in public may excite considerable suspicion and comment.

Effects

The effects of the drug are similar in many ways to the effects produced by alcohol. The brain appears to be intoxicated, however, no delusions are produced such as occur in the use of some other drugs. The drug appears to relax all inhibitions and to [...] the areas of the brain which govern an individual's discretion. It also accentuates the senses and increases any strong characteristics of the individual. As a rule, in this way it is similar to liquor. Sexual inhibitions are lowered, the sense of humor is accentuated to the point where almost any statement can seem ridiculously funny, and, on the other hand, where a person is basically unpleasant, he may become more so. In some cases, repressions are emphasized; however, this does not appear to affect the giving of information or answering questions. In some cases it may be found that while repressions are emphasized for a time, this condition will gradually clear up. It was stated that, generally speaking, the reaction will be one of extreme pleasure, producing an hilarious mood and the tendency to indulge in practical jokes of a simple nature and horseplay.

Miscellaneous

Tests have shown that the drug may remain potent in a cigarette for a couple of weeks and in one case it was found that considerable reaction was caused by a cigarette in which the drug had been introduced surreptitiously six months before. As a general rule, the drug would keep even longer in food unless the food itself were to spoil.

Possession of the drug is contrary to Federal law, and a special license, obtainable from the Bureau of Narcotics, is necessary to make legal its possession. This fact may be used to prevent the retention of this drug by persons not in the employ of the Government and who should have no access to the drug.

When the effects of the drug wear off, the subject will, as a rule, have no sense of nausea or feel other physical effects, as he might in the case of interrogation caused by liquor. He will be perfectly aware of the fact that he talked freely and was possible indiscreet. His memory will be in no way affected, and as a rule subject will ascribe his looseness of tongue to the fact that he was intoxicated. It should be remembered that in some cases where an individual has revealed extremely confidential information, his memory of the fact when he regains normality may cause him to take desperate action of one sort or another, such as leaving the country, attempting to do the operator harm, or to commit suicide. Because of these possibilities this fact must be given consideration before the drug is administered.

Tuesday, October 20, 2009

Conspiracy: The Secret History - CIA Drug Operations

Project Artichoke Memorandum - 12 March 1953

12 March 1953

MEMORANDUM For [...]

Subj: [...]

1. [...] an organic chemist, has had considerable experience working with alkaloids and allied organic substances. While stationed [...] as [...] on the staff [...] carried out a research problem in the field embraced by Artichoke.

2. While a [...] was instrumental in perfecting a purification process for certain alkaloids which was of paramount value to the [...] project.

3. [...] was cleared through TS on 28 July 1952 as result of full field investigation.

Monday, October 19, 2009

Victory Through Auto Registration

Joel Ross

Anti-imperialism in Panama

"The Panamanian people, with their patriotic government as the vanguard, have been valiantly struggling against US imperialist economic and political aggression and hegemony." This statement typifies the rancid rhetoric that Panamanians hear from the men who wield or symbolize the power in their country, primarily General Manuel Noriega, chief of the Panama Defense Forces (PDF), and Manuel Solis Palma, the head of government. I say "head of government," because, while the Panamanian Government refers to "President" Solis Palma, the US Government recognizes him as "Minister in Charge of the Presidency."

A Devious Plan

The Panamanian Government has stressed the importance of defeating "US imperialism" and its Panamanian "agents." It says these "bad Panamanians" are from the upper class and have "Caucasian tendencies." That is the government's way of implying to the majority of the population that the rich whites are out to exploit everyone else. It does not help matters when Solis Palma publicly proclaims, "We are all chombos (derogatory slang for blacks), when dealing with the rabiblancos ("white-asses")."

Among other things, the government claims that the rich Panamanian "exploiters" and the "imperialists" are the only ones who can afford cars. As a result, it has devised a system of new automobile registration rules to force its enemies to capitulate by extorting large financial sums from them to help balance the national debt and by occupying so much of their daily schedules that they will not have any time left to conspire against national interests.

Open Warfare

Before the implementation of this system, all I had to do to register my car was to have it inspected at the PDF Inspection Station and then pick up the license plate at another location. Now that I am a target of the government, however, registration has taken on the aspects of an international conflict.

First, I had to obtain a mechanical inspection from an "authorized garage," one of about 10 garages owned by or linked with the PDF-government authorities. If the vehicle passes, a Mechanical Certification [MechCert] is issued. If you are a US citizen or look like someone who would support the opposition, your vehicle will not pass. In fact, your vehicle will need a wheel alignment (Translation: "Because you do not support Noriega, you will pay some money.") Other vehicle "faults" may be discovered; this depends on how busy the garage is and how wealthy or lucky you are.

So I showed up at an authorized garage with my Ford station wagon and my wallet stuffed with green souvenir portraits of US presidents. I had to drive my car to a yellow line and shine the headlights at a large board leaning against a wall. The two headlight beams landed 6 inches to the left of two small Xs drawn on the board. "Your headlights need adjustment," the attendant told me. To save him the trouble, I backed my car up and then drove back to the yellow line, moving the wheels about 6 inches to the right as I did so. Bulls-eye! The beams and Xs matched. "Perfecto," I exclaimed. The attendant walked over to the board and slid it about 6 inches to the right. "Headlight adjustment," he repeated.

The attendant gave a quick glance under the car and announced, "What bad luck, it looks like you need a wheel alignment."

I asked, "Can I just give you the money for it, and we can pretend you did the work?"

The attendant pointed to some mechanical contraption, shook his head, and grinned at me in a certain way that said, "Because you do not support Noriega, you will not only pay money, you will also spend most of your day here."

So I wasted most of my money and my day there before I was blessed with the MechCert.

Next, I took the MechCert to a branch of the government-owned Banco Nacional, where I had to pay $2.10 for a Receipt of Payment [RecPay]. Each teller uses whatever delaying tactics are necessary to comply with the master plan of bureaucratic warfare. I launched a surprise attack, however, by sending my 5-year-old son, who speaks little Spanish, to present the MechCert and fee to the cashier. The cashier, face to face with my secret weapon, had no choice but to surrender the RecPay to my son, who successfully demanded some ice cream as the price for his participation.

More Obstacles

I then took the MechCert and the RecPay to the PDF Inspection Station, where PDF officials had to verify the documents and the car before issuing the Inspection Decal [InspecDec].

There is only one inspection station to handle about 1 million cars, all of which happened to show up when I did. The cars, five lines deep and stretching the length of an airport runway--the inspection station actually was an airport in the past--sizzled in the tropical sun and took many hours to reach the first checkpoint, where I saw drivers bolting from their cars and rushing to a row of windows. Naturally, I did the same. After another long wait, I reached the keeper of Window No. 4. I handed over about 5 pounds of paperwork; in addition to the MechCert and RecPay, I had been warned to offer for sacrifice my driver's license, car insurance certificate, and proof of vehicle ownership. On my own initiative, I also brought along my birth certificate, proof of yellow fever vaccinations, and a copy of my college transcript.

When the windowkeeper decided my papers were in order, and I use that term loosely, she handed the InspecDec to a worker who asked me to show him my car. When we arrived at the Ford, the man prepared to apply the decal to the window, but he kept wiping his brow with his sleeve and saying things like, "Man, am I thirsty!" Because the heat had addled my brain, it took me longer than usual to get the not-so-subtle hint. I gave him a dollar to buy a cold drink, even though the nearest cool drink must have been miles away.

I was then eligible to receive my Municipal Tax Clearance Certificate [MTCC], which is needed to obtain a license plate. I went to a well-named place called Diablo Heights, where I waited in line, handed over my growing pile of papers, waited some more, paid my 25-cent fee, signed a form, waited some more, and then received the MTCC. Through a dreadful miscalculation by the government, the license plate office was located in the same building as the MTCC office, thus eliminating an extra trip. So I waited in another line, handed over my paper-filled briefcase, waited some more, paid my $30 fee, signed a form, waited again, and finally received the license plate.

I then needed a Vehicle Registration Card [VRC], which required returning to the PDF Inspection Station with my file cabinet of documents and $1.50. I returned to the runway, and, in the words of Yogi Berra, "It was like deja vu all over again."

The good news was that I finally had my car fully documented. The bad news is that it took so long that it is almost time to go through the process again for the following year.

"Pineapple Face" Prevails

Meanwhile, the crisis in Panama continues. Noriega, who is not above ordering forced confessions or forced wheel alignments, still has the upper hand, primarily because he garners support by distributing free beer and days off from work. The opposition retaliates in part with insulting hand gestures and severe sarcasm. It also resorts to name-calling. For example, acne-scarred Noriega is "Pineapple Face," Solis Palma is "Solis Dead-Palm Leaf," and Noriega's favorite patriotic slogan, "Not one step backward," is converted into "No more frogs!"

Noriega has responded by offering quasi-supporters two priceless objects, an inspection decal with matching license plate.

This article is classified SECRET.